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Entrepreneurial attitudes as driving forces in times of European uncertainty: The role of entrepreneurial education



Objective: The article aims to identify the main determinants affecting the creation of entrepreneurial attitudes among university students in non-economic fields during times of high uncertainty (such as the Covid-19 pandemic).

Research Design & Methods: We based the research model on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and surveyed university students in non-economic fields in Poland (N=355). Statistical analysis provided an opportunity to confirm the research hypotheses.

Findings: Positively confirmed hypotheses: entrepreneurial attitudes are shaped by a number of internal and external factors (H1); entrepreneurial knowledge is related to the formation of entrepreneurial attitudes (H2); formal education can be an important source of entrepreneurial knowledge among university students in non-economic fields (H3); well-established entrepreneurial attitudes influence positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship in times of uncertainty related to Covid-19 (H4). This led to an indirect positive answer to the RQ: Entrepreneurial education among university students in non-economic fields is linked to the intention to establish their businesses.

Implications & Recommendations: The survey’s conclusions suggest the necessity to intensify efforts at the higher education level to supplement programs with entrepreneurial education for university students in non-economic fields, which scholars seldom analyse in this context, particularly in the Central and Eastern European region.

Contribution & Value Added: The study fills the gap in research on the relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial attitudes, which are key factors influencing the creation of new business ventures. Existing literature highlights the lack of analysis in Central and Eastern Europe with particular emphasis on Poland.


entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial attitudes, entrepreneurial education, economic knowledge, non-economic students, Poland

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Author Biography

Katarzyna Bałandynowicz-Panfil

PhD in Economics. Works as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sustainable Market Processes at the Faculty of Economics, University of Gdańsk in Poland. Her research interests focus on the silver economy, media and economy relations, labour market and regional development.

Małgorzata Łosiewicz

A habilitated Doctor in Media Studies, PhD in Economics. Professor and Director of the Institute of Media, Journalism and Social Communication at the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gdańsk in Poland. Her research interests focus on the media image of people and institutions, communicating market entities in a crisis.

Beata Czechowska-Derkacz

PhD in Humanities. Works as an Assistant Professor of the Institute of Media, Journalism and Social Communication at the Department of Social Sciences, University of Gdańsk in Poland. Her research interest are on the image of universities, public relations, image strategies.


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