Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Risk insights vs. competences in managing multicultural teams in Poland


Objective: The objective of this study was to obtain in-depth understanding of the concept of necessary competences, which could ensure effective work in multicultural organisations based on different risks, which can occur in practice.

Research Design & Methods: The authors made in-depth literature review in order to identify and to understand the possible risks that can occur in multicultural organisations and the behaviours of staff related to the risks identified. Afterwards, the authors made interviews with 30 people from multicultural organisations in order to finally present a qualitative analysis, which aimed at identifying and comparing competences, which seem to be necessary in order to work effectively in multicultural organisations.

Findings: Based on the feedback from the target groups, it turned out that the respondents admitted that it is necessary to have specific competences, which could support effective works in the multicultural organisation.

Contribution & Value Added: The core input is that the results of the study are not be only the subject of theoretical considerations, but they can be implemented in practice in the form of a dedicated training.


multiculturality, cultural risk, cultural competences, intercultural management, cultural awareness of staff


Author Biography

Ludmiła Walaszczyk

Ph.D. (2015) in Management from the Warsaw University of Technology. Since 2005 she has worked in the Strategy Innovation Department in the LUKASIEWICZ Research Network - Institute for Sustainable Technologies in Radom. Her scientific interests concern business models aspects, the multiculturality in the organisations and the relations between the entrepreneurs and local and regional authorities.

Remigiusz Mazur

Early Stage Researcher in the LUKASIEWICZ Research Network - Institute for Sustainable Technologies in Radom, Poland. His research interests comprise innovation management, foresight, cross-cultural management, international affairs, future-oriented learning methods, and use of new technologies in training methods.


  1. Adler, P., & Adler, P. (2012). Expert Voice. In S.E. Baker & R. Edwards, How Many Qualitative Interviews Are Enough? (pp. 8-11). National Centre for Research Methods Review Discussion Paper. Retrieved from on May 9, 2015.
  2. Alegre, J., & Chiva, R. (2013). Linking Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm Performance: The Role of Organizational Learning Capability and Innovation Performance. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(4), 491-507.
  3. Angouri, J., & Glynos, J. (2009). Managing Cultural Difference and Struggle in The Context of Multinational Corporate Workplace: Solution or Symptom? Working papers in Ideology and Discourse Analysis, 26, 3-9.
  4. Berłowski, P. (2014). Kultura Dużego Przyspieszenia w Firmie Siemens. Personel i Zarządzanie, 7, 26-29.
  5. Besley, T., & Peters, M.A. (2012). Interculturalism, Education and Dialogue. Bern: Peter Lang.
  6. Bikmen, N., & Sunar, D. (2013). Difficult Dialogs: Majority Group Members’ Willingness to Talk about Inequality with Different Minority Groups. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37(4), 467-476.
  7. Bilicka, D., Paszkowska-Rogacz, A., & Stawiany-Marchwicka, M. (2006). European Intercultural Workplace: Poland. Retrieved from: on June 10, 2019.
  8. Brunnemann, K. (2013). The Strategic Importance of Intercultural Competency for Project Managers for the 21st Century. Working Paper Series by the University of Applied Sciences bfi Vienna, 79.
  9. Chaney, L. (2005). Intercultural Business Communication, 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  10. Chmielewska-Muciek, D. (2017). Diagnosis of Communication Context in Companies. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, 51(3), 7-15.
  11. Choi, J.N. (2006). Multilevel and Cross-Level Effects of Workplace Attitudes and Group Member Relations on Interpersonal Helping Behaviour. Human Performance, 19(4), 383-402.
  12. Davis, N., & Cho, M.O. (2005). Intercultural Competence for Future Leaders of Educational Technology and its Evaluation. Interactive Educational Multimedia, 10, 1-22.
  13. Fitzsimmons, S. (2013). Multicultural Employees: A Framework for Understanding How They Contribute to Organizations. Academy of Management Review, 38, 525-549. doi:10.5465/amr.2011.0234
  14. Gajek, K. (2009). Dynamika Procesow Wielokulturowych w Organizacji. Studium Przypadku. Problemy Zarządzania, 7, 158-171.
  15. Gilley, A., Gilley, J.W. & McMillan, H.S. (2009). Organizational Change: Motivation, Communication, and Leadership Effectiveness. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 21(4), 75-94. doi:10.3763/aedm.2008.0072
  16. Gut, A., Wilczewski, M., & Gorbaniuk, O. (2017). Cultural Differences, Stereotypes and Communication Needs in Intercultural Communication in a Global Multicultural Environment. The Employees’ Perspective. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 43(1), 1-20.
  17. Hammer, M.R. (2009). The Intercultural Development Inventory: An Approach for Assessing and Building Intercultural Competence. In M.A. Moodian (Ed.), Contemporary Leadership and Intercultural Competence: Exploring the Cross-Cultural Dynamics within Organizations (pp. 203-217). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  18. Jackson, J. (2015). Becoming Interculturally Competent: Theory to Practice in International Education. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 48, 91-107.
  19. Korzilius, H., Bucker, J.J.L.E., & Beerlage, S. (2017). Multiculturalism and Innovative Work Behaviour: The Mediating Role of Cultural Intelligence. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 56, 13-24.
  20. Kosiu, K., Troncy, C., & Golzhauser, J. (2005). Time Perception in France, Germany and Poland. Euro–limes, 1(5), 1-10.
  21. Kostrzyńska, A. (2018). Wielokulturowość w Biznesie i Organizacji, Retrieved from: on June 10, 2019.
  22. Kotter, J. (2011). Change Management vs. Change Leadership – What’s the Difference? Retrieved from: www. on May 24, 2019.
  23. La Fever, M. (2010). Cross-Cultural Learning Styles. In: Clauss-Ehler C.S. (eds) Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural Psychology,Boston, MA: Springer, 286-287, doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-71799-9
  24. Lahdesmaki, T., & Wagener, A. (2015). Discourses on Governing Diversity in Europe: Critical Analysis of the White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 44, 13-28.
  25. Lara, F.J., Palacios-Marques, D. & Devece, C.A. (2012). How to Improve Organizational Result through Knowledge Management in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services. The Service Industries Journal, 32(12), 1853-1863.
  26. Lara, F.J., & Salas-Vallina, A. (2017). Managerial Competencies, Innovation and Engagement in SMEs: The Mediating Role of Organisational Learning. Journal of Business Research, 79, 152-160.
  27. Laycock, D. (2014). Religious Liberty and the Culture Wars. University of Illinois Law Review, 3, 839-880.
  28. Lisak, A., & Erez, M. (2015). Leadership Emergence in Multicultural Teams: The Power of Global Characteristics. Journal of World Business, 50(1), 3-14.
  29. Lloyd, S. & Hartel, C. (2010). Intercultural Competencies for Culturally Diverse Work Teams. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(8), 845-875.
  30. Marshall, B., Cardon, P., Poddar, A. & Fontenot, R. (2013). Does Sample Size Matter in Qualitative Research: A Review of Qualitative Interviews in IS Research. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 54, 11-22.
  31. Matusitz, J. (2012). Relationship between Knowledge, Stereotyping, and Prejudice in Interethnic Communication. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 10(1), 89-98. https://doi:10.25145/j.pasos.2012.10.008
  32. Milfont, T. L. (2012). Cultural Differences in Environmental Engagement. In S.D. Clayton (Ed.), Oxford library of psychology. The Oxford handbook of environmental and conservation psychology, 181-200. New York: Oxford University Press.
  33. Ocheng, E., & Price, A.D.F. (2010). Factors Influencing Effective Performance of Multi-Cultural Construction Project Teams, Proceedings 26th Annual ARCOM Conference. Leeds, UK., 2, 1159-1167.
  34. Otter, A. & Emmitt, S. (2008). Design Team Communication and Design Task Complexity: The Preference for Dialogues. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 4(2), 121-129. https://doi: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0072
  35. Panagiotis, M. (2012). An Analysis of the Cultural Differences between Leadership. The Case of Greece and Germany. Seminar paper.
  36. Przytuła, S. (2011). Problemy Wielokulturowości w Korporacjach Międzynarodowych. Problemy Zarządzania, 9(4), 26-42.
  37. Rogowski, W. (2015). Przyczyny Upadłości Polskich Przedsiębiorstw – Aspekt Teoretyczny. Studia i Prace. Kolegium Zarządzania i Finansów, 143, 119-154.
  38. Ryan, L. (2016). The Five Most Common Culture Problems and Their Solutions, Forbes. Retrieved from: on June 10, 2019.
  39. Serin H. (2017). Teaching about Respect and Tolerance with Presentations on Cultural Values. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 3(4), 174-176.
  40. Skoczyńska-Prokopowicz, B. (2018). Foreign Labour Migration of Ukrainians to Poland: Statistical Research from the Perspective of Ukrainian Studies, Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Śląskiej, Organizacja I Zarządzanie, 122, 195-203.
  41. Spencer-Rodgers, J., Williams, M.J., & Peng, K. (2010). Cultural Differences in Expectations of Change and Tolerance for Contradiction: A Decade of Empirical Research. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(3), 296-312. doi: 10.1177/1088868310362982
  42. Velten, L. & Lashley, C. (2018). The Meaning of Cultural Diversity Among Staff as It Pertains to Employee Motivation. Research in Hospitality Management, 7(2), 105-113. doi:10.1080/22243534.2017.1444718
  43. Wach, K. (2010). Doing Business in Poland. Socio-Cultural Aspects. Retrieved from: on June 10, 2019.
  44. Wilk-Wos, Z. (2010). The Role of Intercultural Dialogue in the EU Policy. Journal of Intercultural Management, 2(1), 78-88.
  45. Wojtulewski, R. (2016) Akceptacja Inności – Spostrzeganie Odmienności Narodowej Studentow z Ukrainy wśrod Studentow Uczelni Krakowskich. Państwo i Społeczeństwo, 2016 (XVI), 1, 149-174.
  46. Yeo, S.L., Pang, A. (2017). Asian Multiculturalism in Communication: Impact of Culture in the Practice of Public Relations in Singapore. Public Relations Review, 43(1), 112-122.
  47. Zahedi, F. (2011). The Challenge of Truth Telling Across Cultures: A Case Study. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 4(11), 2-9.
  48. Zalina, I., Abdullah, F., & Ismailc, A. (2016). International Business Competence and Small and Medium Enterprises, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 224, 393-400.
  49. Zimmermann, K. (2010). Intercultural Competence as a Success Factor of Virtual Multicultural Teams: A Case Study on the Team Effectiveness of Global HR Teams. Jyvaskyla: Universidade de Jyvaskyla.
  50. Zubik, А. (2014). Suthasna Trudova Mihracia Ukraintskogo Naselenia w Polshu. Ekonomithna ta Socialna Geografia. Naukovi Zapiski, 1, 111.


Download data is not yet available.

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.