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Does masculine orientation affect entrepreneurial intentions? Empirical research results among students



Objective: The article aims to present the research results on the relationship between the national culture dimension of masculinity/femininity according to Hosfstede’s approach and declared entrepreneurial intentions.

Research Design & Methods: The research sample included 226 Polish students, whom we asked questions relating to Hofstede’s dimensions of culture. In the next step, we created binomial logistic regression models. We verified the hypothesis based on the models’ estimated parameters in the next step.

Findings: The study revealed that people representing a masculine cultural orientation tend to be more inclined to start their own businesses than those with a feminine orientation.

Implications & Recommendations: The research results confirmed that the characteristics attributed to male culture favour the emergence and development of entrepreneurial intentions. Thus, from the education perspective aimed at promoting pro-entrepreneurial behaviour, it is advisable to develop these qualities in society by emphasizing the educational process on the training of creative leaders, people with high mental resilience, and a willingness to compete and improve the surrounding world.

Contribution & Value Added: This article fills the research gap in the cultural determinants of entrepreneurial development, subject to the need to continue research on a more extensive research sample in terms of international comparisons.


entrepreneurial intentions, Hofstede, entrepreneurial determinants, masculinity, femininity, entrepreneurship education

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Author Biography

Krystian Bigos

Research Assistant at the Krakow University of Economics, Department of International Trade at the College of Economics, Finance and Law. His research interests include early and rapid internationalisation, international start-ups and international entrepreneurship.

Jan Chlanda

Bachelor of International Economics, specialization in Foreign Trade at the Krakow University of Economics. Scientific interests include financial markets, hedge and private-equity funds, financial crises, Ponzi schemes, and statistical analysis of economic indices. Applied research methods: econometric analysis, linear arrangement, least squares estimation, economic forecasting.

Michał Ciepły

Bachelor of International Economics, alumnus and master’s program student at the Krakow University of Economics. His interest includes East Asian politics, Agile project management, international integration and seeking economic connections between Europe and the Far East.

Natalia Ciosmak

Bachelor of International Economics, master’s program student at the Krakow University of Economics. Scientific interests: intercultural communication, East Asian culture, professional activation of people with disabilities, corporate social responsibility.

Adam Michalik

Assistant Professor at the Krakow University of Economics, Department of International Trade at the College of Economics, Finance and Law. His research interests include entrepreneurship, foreign investments, and security of business transactions.

Anita Pustułka

Bachelor of International Economics, alumnus and master’s program student at the Krakow University of Economics. Scientific interests: multiculturalism, team management, corporate governance, international economics.


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